On Romany Holocaust Memorial Day – 2nd August

Romani prisoners at Belzec camp, 1940

JVL Introduction

In this moving article Romany journalist Jake Bowers places the story of the Romany Holocaust in today’s context.

He reminds us of the resistance at Auschwitz on 16th May 1944, the only recorded uprising in the camp, when Romany prisoners stood up against their Nazi guards armed with only hammers, pickaxes and shovels.

As a result of their defiance, no Roma died in the gas chambers on that day.

It is now commemorated as Romani Resistance Day

But on 2 August the Nazis took their revenge. 4,300 Romanies were murdered at the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp.

Estimates of how many Romani were murdered overall range from 500,000 to 1.5 million people.

And for very many of those who survived, there was no happy ending, as prejudice and discrimination have followed them to the present day.

So this account of the dreadful history is also a call for resistance against the hostile environment historically suffered by Britain’s Gypsy, Roma and Traveller community, now being cranked up in Priti Patel’s Police, Crime, Sentencing and Courts Bill.

This article was originally published by the Morning Star on Mon 2 Aug 2021. Read the original here.

We will not go quietly into the history books

TODAY is Romany Holocaust Memorial Day — yet ask most lifelong anti-racists what the significance of August 2 is and they will be puzzled.

For our history, just like our plight, remains one of Europe’s dirty secrets.

So come with me, if you will, on a journey into the past of Europe’s 12 million Romany people because we desperately need your help to secure a better future. Because history does not always exactly repeat itself, but in 2021 it is starting to rhyme.

On this day, in 1944, 4,300 Romanies were murdered at the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp.

They were taken during the night from their barracks to the gas chamber by SS guards.

The mass killing was a reprisal on the community who led a desperate uprising at the death camp.

Just months earlier, on May 16, Romany prisoners of the so-called Zigeunerlager (Gypsy camp), having heard of the imminent liquidation of the camp, stood up against the Nazi guards armed with only hammers, pickaxes and shovels.

As a result of their defiance, no Roma died in the gas chambers on that day. The Romany revolt against the Nazis is the only recorded uprising in Auschwitz and is now commemorated as Romani Resistance Day.

We still do not know how many of us died in the Holocaust. Unlike the Jewish community, many of our ancestors could not read or write, so few independent records were kept.

Estimates range from 500,000 to 1.5 million people, their lives and stories are often lost within German statistics of those “remaining to be liquidated.”

We were the only other racial minority alongside the Jewish community specifically subjected to the Nazi “final solution” — and a similar percentage of the Romany and Jewish community was eradicated.

But there the parallels end, because what the intervening decades have taught us is that some inequalities are sadly far more equal than others.

So today we will weep for those we lost, but tomorrow we must again pick up the shovels.

Across Europe a mudslide of racist violence is once again engulfing our people. From Hungary to Britain, right-wing governments are once again scapegoating our people — and the results can be lethal.

In the Czech Republic, Romany man Stanislav Tomas died in Teplice on June 19 2021, after a Czech police officer knelt on his neck for six minutes.

In images comparable to the murder of George Floyd in the US, the video went viral, prompting Romanies across Europe to protest police violence.

The Czech Republic authorities deny any wrongdoing and the police were praised by the interior minister for their good work.

After the Council of Europe called for an independent investigation, the Czech president said he had no reason to doubt the results of the internal investigation, which found the police officers’ behaviour to be correct.

In New York, Berlin, Brussels, Glasgow, London, Vienna and in countless cities across eastern Europe where Romany populations are big and growing, Romanies are demanding justice for Stanislav and themselves.

Directly inspired by the Black Lives Matter movement, a Roma Lives Matter movement has seen thousands of Romany people demand better treatment on the streets.

For many of us the end of the Holocaust did not lead to turning point in our treatment and life chances. Those who had survived the Nazis were soon forcibly settled and assimilated into urban deprivation by Stalinist regimes.

In recent decades, the forced sterilisation of Romany women, poverty and over-representation in state care and special schools for Romany kids and deeply ingrained prejudice have kept us moving.

Such racism has led to a huge wave of Romany migration to western Europe. This has led to a doubling of the British Gypsy, Roma and Traveller population to at least 600,000 people.

But Britain is no safe haven. The hostile environment experienced by Britain’s Gypsy, Roma and Traveller community for over 500 years has recently been cranked up.

Priti Patel’s Police, Crime, Sentencing and Courts Bill not only limits the right to protest, but also seeks to completely outlaw nomadic Gypsy and Traveller culture.

If passed it will entirely eradicate nomadic life in Britain, giving police the power to seize Gypsy and Traveller homes and fine Gypsies and Travellers up to £2,500 — and imprison those needing to follow a nomadic way of life because of a lack of safe, legal stopping places.

On July 7 over 1,000 community members gathered in the shadow of the statues of Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela and suffragette Millicent Fawcett in Parliament Square to kick-start the Drive 2 Survive campaign that will roll from Westminster to the Appleby Fair (the world’s largest Gypsy horse fair) in August in Cumbria, to the Conservative Party Conference in Manchester in October 2021.

Much as Gandhi, Mandela and Fawcett used direct action to fight for equality, Gypsy and Traveller community members will resist the outlawing of our cultures. Our communities have unified to fight the Bill, but we desperately need your help to stop it.

“As nomadic people that have roamed the lands we have lived on for our whole recorded history, to suddenly be told our way of life has no place in society is totally wrong and hurtful,” says Irish Traveller activist Chris McDonagh.

“We all live in a country that is supposedly proud of its acceptance and equality for all ethnicities and minorities, but we now see this is a lie. We are people and we deserve to live our lives as we always have. We deserve to exist.”

The Drive 2 Survive Campaign’s first aim is the scrapping of part four of the Bill that creates a criminal law of trespass and dramatically increases police powers over anyone residing on land that they do not have permission to be on.

We believe that the draconian powers within the 1994 Criminal Justice and Public Order Act that already lock nomadic Gypsies and Travellers into a cycle of trespass and eviction and do not need strengthening but repealing.

Patel cannot ignore the fact that police powers are already too excessive. It’s not just Gypsies, Roma and Travellers who are resisting these new powers, but representatives from the National Police Chiefs Council.

In evidence to the committee stage of the Police Bill, the community and the police were united in calling for a better way of resolving the conflict around a lack of stopping places.

The community takes the threat of the new legislation so seriously that it has organised the first Romani Kris (council of elders) in decades to debate and decide a unified response to Patel’s Bill at Appleby.

Hereditary Appleby Fair organiser Billy Welch sees a direct parallel with the state violence that Romany populations were subjected to before the Holocaust, because before the death camps came the outlawing of nomadic life across the Third Reich.

“The people I represent are anxious about these proposals and with good reason. They are reminiscent of Nazi Germany in the 1930s and the start of the process of ethnic cleansing in which Gypsies were forced off the road by fines and imprisonment.

“Their horses and vehicles were confiscated, which eventually led to them being sent to death camps or murdered on the side of the road.

“There are still many Gypsies alive who lost their families in that Holocaust and they have not forgotten — this is how it began.

“All of what was done then was legal in the eyes of the Nazis, but history teaches us clearly that just because something is legal, doesn’t make it right.”

This summer we will show the Conservative Party that we will not go quietly into the history books — in fact we will not be going at all.


To show your solidarity with the Drive 2 Survive Campaign, come to Appleby Horse Fair in Cumbria between August 12 and 15;

attend the National Drive 2 Survive Rally at the time of the Tory Conference in Piccadilly Gardens, Manchester, at 1pm on Saturday October 2 2021.

Jake Bowers is a Romany journalist. For more information see www.drive2survive.org.uk and www.proudroma.org.

 

Comments (5)

  • Linda says:

    While I knew Gypsies were one of the groups selected for the death camps, I hadn’t realised what a high percentage of the population died in them. I knew nothing about the Romany Holocaust Memorial event.

    The Police Bill is so explicitly contrary to the provisions of the Equality Act 2010 (and earlier legislation) that it mystifies me how Patel and Johnson expect to get it through. However, the Police Bill isn’t “just” an attack on one community.

    I suspect part of the Bill’s appeal to Tories is the assistance it would give to criminalising volunteers’ and animal welfare organisations’ anti-hunting and badger protection activities. Supporters and participants in blood sports and badger culls tend to be Tory and increasingly – where their activities are criminal – they’re being punished in the courts. If there aren’t any observers of wrongdoing, that lets the criminals off the hook doesn’t it?

  • Rene Gimpel says:

    Excellent article by Jake Bowers. Well done JVL for republishing it.

    Three years ago I visited the Mémorial de la Shoah in Paris. A well-researched temporary exhibition traced the fate of French Romani and Gitans during the Occupation. Romani were rounded up by both Vichy and the Germans, to be sent to German and Polish camps along with French Jews.

    Not all, though. Vichy imprisoned many Romani on French soil, in their own enclosed and guarded camps. The last camp was closed and its inmates released, one year and two months after the end of the war.

    In other words, the pervasive anti-Gypsy attitude which keeps resurfacing across Europe, is helping to drive our proposed legislation.

    It is no longer fashionable to be antisemitic; it not yet unfashionable to be anti-Gypsy.

  • Robin Vyrnwy-Pierce says:

    We all know six million Jews were slaughtered in the Holocaust. Too many forget that at least six million non-Jews were slaughtered as well.
    We must remember ALL those who died, not just those whose descendants speak in the loudest voice.

  • Philip Ward says:

    I suspect that the Police Bill has been carefully drafted to get round the Equality Act, using the excuse that not all Travellers are members of a single ethnic group. In fact, this is similar to the approach of the French government, starting in 1912, who had a traveller classification system based on occupation, so – according to Shannon L Fogg* – Gypsies/Roma were not strictly rounded up because of their ethnicity, but on the basis of their occupations and how they pursued them. Gypsies fell mainly into two categories: “nomades” who were not necessarily French nationals and had no fixed abode and “forains”, French nationals with no fixed abode who sold stuff at markets and fairs. The former had to carry identity cards containing “name, date and place of birth, height, chest measurement,
    size of head, length of right ear, length of left middle and little fingers,
    length of left arm from elbow to middle fingertip, eye color, all ten
    fingerprints, and two photographs (full face and profile).”

    This approach, saturated in racism, but hiding it behind legalisms, is common to all governments, but seems to present particular problems in France, as they have an aversion to collecting data about racial discrimination. When the Sarkozy government deported around 20,000 Roma to Eastern Europe in 2009-11, they used alleged criminality (i.e. “illegal settlements”) as the excuse and Sarkozy distanced himself from one of the deportation directives when the press showed that it mentioned Roma. I expect Johnson’s government will do the same thing.

    Shannon L Fogg says the French Roma deported to Auschwitz were from “a camp in Belgium, rather than one on French soil” while this** article on the Roma Genocide in France say the Roma were in a camp in “Belgian occupied northern France”. They also differ in their estimates of the numbers deported. Fogg inconclusively looks at some arguments as to why more French Gypsies were not deported to German and Polish concentration camps.

    *https://read.dukeupress.edu/french-historical-studies/article/31/2/327/9590/They-Are-Undesirables-Local-and-National-Responses

    **https://www.coe.int/en/web/roma-genocide/france

  • Linda says:

    @Philip
    I think there’s absolutely no way the government COULD get around the Equality Act 2010 as travelling is central to Romany, Gipsy and Traveller cultures.

Comments are now closed.